Earth architecture: An eco-compatible solution for future green buildings
Earth materials, including minerals, rocks, soil and water, are the oldest and are the foremost widely used construction materials since quite 9000 years. This earthen architecture has stood the test of your time and proved that it can represent quite 2500 years just like the Arg-e-Bam Citadel in Iran (the world largest sun-dried brick structure). Earth as a artifact has almost disappeared during the 20th century thanks to the international development of the commercial concrete. this type of architecture made up of mud is until recently considered primitive, not suitable for our contemporary lifestyle, and typically described because the architecture for low-income societies. during this research, i will be able to demonstrate that the unbaked mud isn’t only a durable construction material, but also the proper construction material for all because it can answer the sustainability challenges they face in terms of energy efficiency, comfort and eco-compatibility.
Unfired-mud construction may be a widely present traditional architecture. it’s quite easy to note the presence of traditional mud architecture that’s still standing and having an interesting weathering resistance despite the time span. Obvious examples like the traditional city Arg-e-Bam Citadel in Iran show the resistance and therefore the potential to use this product of nature. Many adobe buildings are recognized as having a historical and architectonic value. Unfired-mud construction may be a widely present traditional architecture. it’s quite easy to note the presence of traditional mud architecture that’s still standing and having an interesting weathering resistance despite the time span. Obvious examples like the traditional city Arg-e-Bam Citadel in Iran show the resistance and therefore the potential to use this product of nature. Many adobe buildings are recognized as having a historical and architectonic value.
About one-third of the worldwide population lives within the unbaked-mud buildings (Minke 2006). it’s impressive to ascertain how it might be an efficient solution to the 21st century energy problem for local communities. Mud is one among the few building materials which will be recycled indefinitely; it also can be found in most parts of the planet with low transportation, processing and pose cost. additionally , unlike the conglomerate concrete whose process of production alone is liable for almost 13% of worldwide CO2 emissions (Benghida 2015), the method of mud brick making has near zero emissions. Brick is, indeed, the most cost effective , most practical and convenient sustainable construction material. With the good value of bricks and their architectural technology, architects and other professionals should keep bricks within the race.
STRENGTH AND WEAKNESS OF MUD BRICKS
The great thickness of earthen walls acts as a buffer to the warmth , holding it while the wall temperature rises. However, this process is merely slowing down the warmth transmission and deferring it later for several hours during the night on the other side after the sunset, after the thick wall warms up. The night-natural ventilation also can be an efficient passive technology (courtyards) to dwell the thermal temperature during summer (Steele 2009). due to its low-cost and low aesthetics options, earthen architecture is perceived as a symbol of poverty (Sheweka 2011). But this image of mud architecture doesn’t do justice thereto since it’s the potential of making contemporary houses (Figure 1). Table 1. Comparison of various construction material properties (Fernandes et al. 2014). Material Thermal conductivity λ-value (W/m.ºC) Thermal storage capacity (Wh/kgºC) Heat transfer delay (250 mm thickness) hour global warming Potential (kg CO2/m3) Rammed earth/ adobe 1.00–1.20 0.23–0.30 10 / 9 38 Stone 2.30–3.50 0,22–0.24 5.5 26 Concrete 1,80 1.10 7 264 Hollow bricks 0.39–0.45 0,26 6 357 Figure 1. The perch, a rammed earth architecture project, Sedona Arizona, 2008, by courtesy of the engineering and construction Zone. Brick may be a popular and distinctive choice thanks to its advantages over other construction materials. Table 2 summarizes why it’s appealing to homeowners and architectural professionals, and what disadvantages could be contributing to its dropping popularity (Benghida 2015, Revuelta-Acosta 2010).
Comparison of indoor and outdoor air temperature fluctuation within 24 h period for the prefabricated concrete test model, for the mud-brick test model (Fathy 1986).
Earth brick is a superb example of eco-compatible construction material because the worldwide availability and therefore the in place production make it cost-effective with low embodied energy. Its high thermal resistance makes it the favourite material, especially for decent dry climate populations, because it provides a high standard of indoor comfort. Brick has few weaknesses, which may be fixed through the acceptable use of sustainable technologies to stay this material 100% eco-compatible and responsive. By educating architects about this traditional material, by implicating engineers and by improving the mechanical properties of the mud bricks against weathering and moisturizing, earth architecture will thrive within the near future, notably for its intrinsic advantages at reducing CO2.
This work was supported by the Dong-A University research fund.